JamesAllen provides a reality check:. The real Pocahontas was married off to a white man old enough to be her father when she was a teenager.
Her culture was destroyed and her relatives murdered. The Disney movie itself might have been okay, I guess, and the commenters saying it was made with good intentions may be correct. But the actual story of Pocahontas was grim and brutal. TonyChen4 goes further:. This movie never should have been made.
Another one is the curiously named Crud Bonemeal :. The reason why the indigenous communities are unhappy about the film and this article is because they are fed up that Western culture only wants to interact with our narratives if they are heavily romanticized and fictitious. Both Pocahontas and Sacagawea are often held up as heroines in the Western perspective, their stories reduced to kinder details rather than serving the interest of the dominant culture.
Nobody wants to feel like a settler. The idea for the piece came about because I was rewatching the movie after many, many years and I was struck by how original it was in a number of ways. In the Graphic noted that Aestheticism was beginning to wane, but not in children's books, where it was more influential than ever. The reviewer mentioned the familiar aesthetic themes still so prominent in juvenile books: "fancies of olden times, soft refined colouring, and humour suggested rather than strongly expressed. In the Victorian period art became increasingly important not only in illustrating the text but also in influencing literary discourse.
As a visual art, illustration was able to extend the concerns of the journalist and the novelist. In its opening issue in , the Illustrated London News declared that art had become the bride of literature. In the serial novels of Dickens, the illustrations and pictorial narrative worked as one.
A public receptive to art was instrumental in the response to illustrated children's books. The use of illustration in both children's and adult literature—picture books, periodicals, and novels—helped to educate the expectations of the public and stimulate a close relationship between books for young and old. The popularization of visual elaboration coincided with technical progress in printing for a mass audience. The development of wood engraving was instrumental in creating a popular audience for illustration. Wood engraving was a traditional woodcut technique, dating back to the thirteenth century, in which the parts of a design that are to be white are cut away, while the black parts are left in relief.
Thus, both text and illustration can be printed together. Wood engraving had been developing steadily since the mastery of the craft by Thomas Bewick — , who perfected the process that was used extensively throughout the nineteenth century, which necessitated hard-wood blocks and tools of metal engraving. He demonstrated the effect of light and shade by lowering parts of the block to print faintly and to create delicate designs by using the close-grained end of boxwood.
The older I get, the more tolerant I become. Armed with fishing gear and differing baits, she sets out every day to realize her dream, whatever the weather. Billy the Kid was an opposite type. But Crane is more than a gifted line drawer, or a purveyor of stylized Japonaiserie, or a Pre-Raphaelite couturier. His long-standing interest in folk music also resulted in Crane's partnership with Theophilus Marzials, the head of the music section at the British Museum , who supplied the arrangements for Pan Pipes. In addition to altering the title, Caldecott added a last couplet—"But there came a Jenny Wren and popped it on again"—in which the Maid gets back her nose.
Bewick's techniques were adapted by news periodicals, which found the unity of the page conducive for mass production. From the s illustrations played a role in periodicals, but by the s visual matter was prominent. Wood engraving was suitable to the large print runs of popular journalism. The development of a workable process of picture reproduction stimulated creativity and the emergence of artists.
Professionally trained artists were engaged to illustrate appealing images of Victorian life to accompany serialized fiction, poetry, travel literature, and news stories. Illustration became a staple of popular journalism.
The receptivity of the public to these images increased the use of wood engraving to produce publications in greater abundance and economy. The number of new publishers of books and periodicals grew rapidly, as did the reputation of these artists, who enjoyed an unprecedented public following and influence.
Further technical innovations changed the direction of printing by the mids. Thomas Bolton developed a technique of transferring a photographed image of a drawing to a wooden block, which enabled the engraver to work on the surface and to preserve the original drawing. George Baxter pioneered a process of using aquatinting to produce a design in color; the technique was further refined by J. Kronheim to produce similar effects at a lower cost. Color printing by wood engraving was perfected in the work of Edmund Evans, a printer in direct lineage to Bewick.
Evans, apprenticed to Ebenezer Landells, a pupil of Bewick, developed a mastery in color printing from wood blocks and worked closely with his artists—Walter Crane, Randolph Caldecott, and Kate Greenaway—to exploit the possibilities and limitations of the medium.
Evans demonstrated that it was possible to produce inexpensive illustrated books of fine color and taste. Artistic styles and technical methods were further expanded toward the end of the century by Oriental influences and the Arts and Crafts movement, with its revival of interest in early illustration. The tradition of the decorated book had waned over the course of the century, only to be revived by the Pre-Raphaelites, in particular the edition of Tennyson's Poems and the title page by Rossetti to Early Italian Poems Book decorators and book printers worked toward an ideal of design as beautiful in its own right and its relationship to the whole of the book.
As Walter Crane—who was the person most vocal on the subject—writes, "Book illustration should be something more than a collection of accidental sketches.
Since one cannot ignore the constructive organic element in the formation—the idea of the book itself—it is so far inartistic to leave it out of account in designing work intended to form an essential or integral part of the book. The emphasis on the visual, on the physical attractiveness of a book, created a stimulating book environment. Art was so prominent in literature that a writer in the Critic stated, "The spirit of the times takes much more kindly to the art of the painter than to that of verse-making.
The impact was on the serialization process as well as on the framework of illustrated texts. In suggesting character, advancing plot, stating dialogue, and infusing moral significance, the illustrator's creativity shared the novelist's dramatic quality. The inherent rivalry was exacerbated by a practice of matching text to preexisting pictures. The traditional role of text and illustration was reversed as well in the practice of gift books; often the illustrations were completed first, with verse then written to complement the pictures.
Reviewers frequently noted the dominance of illustration in contemporary literature. To the Critic , "A savage dropped into a modern bookstore would undoubtedly suppose literature to be something to look at; something like Wordsworth's Nature, with 'no charm unborrowed from the eye. Heightened attention to art was perceived by some as a threat to the future of literature. An essay in Lippincott's on "Cheap Books" attributed a decline in quality literature to the ascendancy of Aestheticism. The author noted, "Literature is out of fashion, and Art is having its day. In such a cultural climate, books lessened in value as well as cost.
All that mattered was art and adornment. The writer was concerned that women's advancement would be jeopardized by a preoccupation with aesthetic touches in artistic needlework and china painting, at the expense of higher goals of intellectual merit. Children's books were read frequently by adults in the nineteenth century.
Richards's poetry was often featured in the Ladies Home Journal , suitably illustrated by Kate Greenaway. The genre of adventure fiction appealed to both children and adults, who made popular such works as Ben Hur , Rudyard Kipling 's fables, and the scientific fantasies of Jules Verne as well as the magical creatures of Palmer Cox's The Brownies.
This dual readership was recognized in the reviews. The Atlantic Monthly in described the phenomenon as "not juvenile literature but books for the big about the little.
Younger children and adults shared picture books. Older children read books whose subject matter attracted a broad popular audience. Some examples included Charles Dickens's novels, G. The Pall Mall Gazette conducted a poll in July to determine the best books for a ten-year-old.
As a summary of children's leisure reading, it was instructive, suggesting the longevity of many of the books that children—and adults—read in the late nineteenth century. Most popular was Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , followed by two perennial favorites, the fairy tales of Grimm and Andersen. Fifteenth were the fairy tale anthologies of Andrew Lang , and the final favorites were the books of Mrs.
Molesworth and G.
Some critics tried to construct or preserve the distinction between books for and books about children. The Art Journal , recounting the history of children's books, noted that Alice's Adventures in Wonderland appealed to both adults and children, and its enormous popularity and commercial success encouraged authors to write for both; the drawback to this approach, of course, was that in trying to please both, an author would please neither.
Field's The Child and His Book noted that many recent books for children had not been stories for children, but stories about children, of greater interest to grown people than to the young. While her book surveyed older traditions in children's literature, her comments on the contemporary scene showed some concern for the appropriateness of the dual audience.
To Field, contemporary artists were, if anything, "too good. The nursery picture-book has a curious tendency to find its way to the drawing-room table and to the smoking-room lounge, even perhaps to the serious study shelf. And uncles and aunts who buy these charming productions "for the children" are frequently discovered to be themselves gloating over them in a corner. While admiring the beauty of these books, she found some of the older illustrators, such as Bewick, to be superior in their directness and simplicity.
Scudder, the Atlantic Monthly editor, wrote Childhood in Literature and Art in , which distinguished between books in which the child merely furnished the subject matter and those which were written to be read by the children themselves. By the end of the century, there were hints of coming changes.
Compared to the prime period of "the Golden Age" of children's book publishing, fewer distinguished prose writers showed an interest in writing for children. The Dial noticed this tendency and expressed concern for the adverse effects on children's literature. Recalling that the masters of English fiction a generation ago had not found children's books to be beneath them, the reviewer detected "a great gulf" between children's book authors, who "have little or no reputation in the broader paths of literature," and those who wrote for adult audiences.
The decades of the s and s displayed a growing consciousness of gender and a more rigid classification of children's books. Reflecting the broader discourse on gender roles, children's books during this period often dealt with themes of the "test of manhood" or "true womanhood. Historians agree that gender division in children's books became a marked trend in the s, the "After-Alice" boom period of publishing. Edward Salmon, a prominent author and authority on children's books in the s and s, addressed the subject in various periodicals and in a collection of essays, Juvenile Literature As It Is In "What Girls Read," appearing in the Nineteenth Century , Salmon was critical of the writing for girls, not in quality but in subject matter, which lacked the dynamism of boys' books.